Frequently Asked Questions 问与答

1.             What are heavy metals?

Metals with density every cc. above 4.5g (or 5g for some)are known as heavy metals, which include copper, nickel, lead, zinc, cobalt, cadmium, bismuth and mercury etc; otherwise, they are known as light metals, such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and aluminum etc.

2.            What are the adverse effects of heavy metals and their compounds? 

Lead poisoning has adverse effects especially on children and pregnant women. These effects include learning disabilities, bodily disorders and mental behavioral problems. As the human body is unable to discharge the lead by natural means, it would continue to accumulate. The main effects of the toxicity of lead and its other compounds are: inhibiting the growth of red blood cells causing anemia; damaging the brain and vertebral; and kidney failure.If the level of lead in the blood is above normal, children may suffer from decreased intelligence, and their IQ level may drop.

Arsenic; its toxicity may be instantly fatal. It may bring about nephropathy and high blood pressure. It can destroy internal organs such as kidney, intestines and stomach and blood corpuscle, skeleton, nervous system, immunity system and genital system. Long term contact with arsenic and cadmium may separately cause dermatitis, liver cancer and carcinoma of prostate.

Mercury can cause skin diseases, stomatitis, teeth ablation, internal hemorrhage, and even damages to the liver and kidney. Any form of mercury may be converted into virulent “methyl mercury (CH3Hg+)”. The methyl mercury is excreted slowly in the human body and is a cumulative toxicant. It mainly encroaches upon cerebrum and cerebellum cortex, easily causes a person to suffer from nervous disorder disease.

Copper Verdigris and other copper salts are poisonous. Exposure to high levels of copper can cause stomach and intestinal distress, liver and kidney damage and complications of Wilson’s disease in genetically predisposed people.

Chrome, a chemical element, may cause lung cancer.

Cadmium accumulates in the body, it would result in serious stomach ache, abdominal pain, lumbago, headache, which subsequently leads to aching in the joints, distortion of the skeleton and contraction of one’s bones, kidney failure and liver damage. These are the obvious effects of cadmium poisoning.

 3.            What is ‘ Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ‘ (PAHS)?

Chlorine is used to sterilise water in most countries. Although it can eliminate communicable diseases such as cholera or typhus, it actually can create new problems. Besides the bad taste, it would also react with the chemical substances in the water to produce ‘ Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ‘ (PAHS).

The main sources of these materials are usually tar or asphalt which are used to prevent corrosion inside the water pipe. They are suspected to have strong carcinogenic toxicity. European Union formulates the safe standard that every Litre of drinking water should not contain more than 200 ug of PAHS.

4.            How is chlorine related with pesticide and herbicide? 

Chlorine is usually used to produce pesticide and herbicide.

A report from Spain stated that 40,000 people died of pesticide poisoning, every year globally. The global output of agricultural chemicals is strikingly huge and used for wide purposes. Their production has increased from 65 million tons in 1970 to 400 million tons in 1993. It is known that 8,000 kinds of agricultural chemicals are poisonous, of which 200 are carcinogenic. The plant crops may look nice on the exterior but are actually poisonous inside. There is no reason for people not to pay any attention to the hazards of agricultural chemicals, and be wary of their pollution effects; thus, washing of vegetables using clean water from a water purifier to eliminate any residual pesticide has become an urgent need.

5.             Why warm, but not boiled water, is good for making tea? 

To brew tea, one may use the SingLongsint water dispenser. Its temperature is set at between 85° to95°. The water will not be boiled to 100° which will become “dead”. Besides retaining the fragrance of the tea or coffee, it also maintains the quality of the water. However, this is not suitable for making soybean milk. The non-boiled soybean milk and hyacinth bean will both cause poisoning.

6.            Why is it necessary to use purified water for shower/bath? 

“There are two ways in which the human body absorbs harmful chemical substances, namely through the skin and the nose. In 1984, the “American Public health Periodical” once published that human skin can absorb up to 63% of chemical substances in the water when showering for 15 minutes.”

Using polluted water to shower would cause the absorption rate of chemical substances to increase sharply. Heavy metals dissolve more easily in boiled water than cool water. Therefore, using purified water for bathing is a health consideration and not a luxury. This is especially important for babies and infants.

After a day of work, it is best to soak oneself in the bathtub to sooth the tired body; or at least soak the feet in warm water. Using natural essential oil helps to enhance the overall wellness. Using water purified by SingLongsint which is free from chlorine, bacteria and heavy metals, both adults and children can enjoy their baths without worries. This is also a strong consideration for businesses in the health-care industry to adopt this practice.

7.            Why is there nitrate salt in drinking water? 

The nitrate in the drinking water is produced by nitrate fertilizer.

The nitrate would interact with other chemical substances in the body and then form into nitrite, and produce carcinogen such as nitrosamine in the digestive tract.

8.            Is there any problem boiling tap water? 

Water (tap water) would also produce Trihalomethanes when boiled.

9.            Is there any problem cooking rice using tap water? 

It is not suitable to use chlorine water for cooking as it may cause massive loss of vitamin B1 in the rice.

10.        Why is it that “blood acidity is the cause of illness”?

A Japanese medical research doctor concludes that one who has acidic blood is more likely to suffer from illness and having an acidic physique can cause one to contract chronic illnesses with higher probability. This is because acid is corrosive, as evidenced when the skin gets into contact with sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid.

A research by the medical department of Tokyo University tested the saliva of 600 cancer patients. It found that 90% of them are acidic, among which 85% displayed strong acidity with pH value below 5.8.

Acid is harmful to the body. At acidic pH of 6, crabs will die; at about pH 3-4, salmon and other types of fish are not able to survive.

11.        Why water from reverse osmosis systems are not encouraged for consumption?

For industrial use, such as washing of machines, boilers and for cooling towers of commercial air conditioning systems, also in some professions such as fire fighting bureaus, the water using the reverse osmosis system in these cases can be recycled and reused which is beneficial for the environment;

Purifying water using reverse osmosis is cheaper than seawater desalination, thus saving cost; 

Reverse osmosis water is suitable for skin care use, healing of wounds and other disinfection purposes. 

But, reverse osmosis water lacks minerals and trace elements needed by the body and is not beneficial to health; it is not natural to add minerals and trace elements again.  

Mr. Lin Guangchang, an expert in water, commented that the trace elements and minerals found in quality water are not replaceable by the intake of vegetables and fruits. However, If the quantity of some minerals exceeds the intake requirement, it may cause poisoning instead.

For example, iodine is needed by human body, but if its content exceeds 0.05mg/l, it can cause poisoning. 

And, if there is excessive iron in the body, it may deposit in different organs and cells, majority of which will be in the liver, adrenal gland, thyroid gland, pancreas and stomach etc. As a result, it may lead to cases of liver cirrhosis, diabetes and skin pigmentation. Therefore, taking in iron excessively is not only non-beneficial but is in fact harmful to the body. 

Smaller sized reverse osmosis purifier requires higher hydraulic pressure to operate and has no use for the waste water, causing wastage. 

Reverse osmosis water is mildly acidic, which is not suitable for the body’s sub alkaline physique. Drinking such water for a prolong period will accelerate calcium loss, and endanger the health, which is especially bad for children, pregnant woman, patients and elders.

12.        The myth of pure water

Many people believe that the purer the water, the better. In fact, pure water is weakly acidic. Drinking it for a long period would reduce trace elements in the body and increase the calcium loss. Thus the immunity system is weakened which makes one more susceptible to fall sick.

Cola, a popular carbonated beverage which contains caffeine, is not a suitable substitute for drinking water. As it also contains sugar, protein and other flavourings and colourings, not only is it not able to replenish the water in one’s body, it will also reduce one’s appetite and affect digestion. This will lead to excessive amount of carbohydrates, increasing the blood pressure and cardiovascular burden.

Many offices in Singapore use water dispensers with large bottles of water attached on them. The water found in these bottles is usually processed using reverse osmosis method. It is pure water, and is mildly acidic It cannot provide the minerals and trace elements needed by the body, and would cause the body to turn acidic which is not beneficial for health. Moreover, after opening, the water will come into contact with air which may lead to bacteria growth.”

13.        Any Water Poisoning Cases?

CASE A:

There was a case in Kumamoto County, Japan, where the residents suffered from a weird disease. Symptoms include the inability to articulate clearly, unsteady movement, facial dementia, which later developed to deafness, blindness, general numbness, and nervous break down… … it was later discovered that there was a factory in the vicinity that discharged waste water of “methyl mercury” and polluted the farmland and environment.

Any form of mercury may be converted into virulent “methyl mercury (CH3Hg+)”. The methyl mercury is excreted slowly in the human body and is a cumulative toxicant. It mainly encroaches upon cerebrum and cerebellum cortex, easily causes a person to suffer from nervous disorder disease.

CASE B:

Chrome, a chemical element, may cause lung cancer.

Cadmium has been discovered in some household drinking water where zinc-coated water-pipe is used. Similar to lead, once cadmium accumulates in the body, it would result in serious stomach ache, abdominal pain, lumbago, headache, which subsequently leads to aching in the joints, distortion of the skeleton and contraction of one’s bones, kidney failure and liver damage. These are the obvious effects of cadmium poisoning.

CASE C:

In the coastal area of Jiayi, Tainan in Taiwan, the black-foot disease is the result of too much heavy metal content in the water, which caused huge quantity of heavy metal elements to be accumulated in the body. As these heavy metal elements are denser, they deposited in the soles and gradually extend to the calf. These heavy metal elements will destroy the natural environment for human cells so much so that many will die and fester.

CASE D:

The toxicity of fluoride is extremely intense. It not only can damage the heredity genetic of many animals and plants, but also is the cause of birth defects (especially Down’s disease) and anaphylactic response. New evidence shows that, fluoride would affect the metabolism of calcium, magnesium, manganese and vitamin C.

CASE E:

24/9/2006 Sunday edition of Singapore’s Zaobao reported that:

☆ 1/3 of people in the world today lack water in their lives in varying degrees

☆ Up to 1.1 billion people (1/6 of world population) do not have access to safe drinking water

☆ More than 3 million people globally died from diarrhoea every year, of which 1.6 million (90% are children aged 5 and below) would not have died if they could obtain clean water and proper sanitation.

CASE F:

From an article dated 18th September 2006 in the same paper, it was reported that a total of 120 people fell sick in Washington, USA, because they consumed spinach polluted by E Coli bacteria. Among those, 16 had renal failure.

14.        Any Singapore Certs?

SingLongsint Products were certified by Singapore authority.

Cert 1: Laboratory report generated from Singapore Health Science Authority testing the tap water purified by SingLongsint  1320 superior healthy water purifier shows that:

Test Item

Results

Lead (Pb), mg/L

Not Detected (<0.005)

Arsenic (As), mg/L   

Not Detected (<0.005)

Mercury (Hg), mg/L  Not Detected (<0.001)
Copper (Cu ), mg/L   Not Detected (<0.04) 
Total Residual Chlorine, mg/L            Not Detected (<0.1)   

PH Value      

7.2     

Cert 2: Another test analyzed by the Singapore General Hospital shows that even after a 6-month usage without changing of filters, water purified by the SingLongsint  1320 system still easily exceed standards set by WHO or PUB.

Test Items

Result

WHO guidelines (2004) or PUB typical values

Turbidity (in NTU)

0.15

<5 (PUB)

PH value

7.6

7.0- 9.0 (PUB)

Residual Chlorine (Cl2, Total)

<0.2

<2 (PUB)

Total Dissolved Solids

75.9

1000 max (WHO)

Total Hardness (CaCO3)

44.9

100 max (PUB)

Total Iron (Fe)

<0.01

<0.04 (PUB)

Cert 3: A test was conducted by a microbiology professor from the National University of Singapore, using a sample of water with high bacteria concentration of E. coli (17,500CFU/100ml).The said water was passed through the SingLongsint 1320 purifier. Results show that no bacteria were detected in the purified water:

Table:  High bacteria concentration (17,500 CFU/100mL) in the feed water

Time(minutes)

Volume of water collected at the outlet of the water filter (ml)

Concentration of E. coli in the reservoir (CFU/100ml)

Concentration of E. coli in the water collected at the outlet of the water filter (CFU/100ml)

0

0

17,500

Not detected

5

5,500

540

Not detected

10

11,000

Not detected

Not detected

20

21,900

Not detected

Not detected

30

32,700

Not detected

Not detected

1.             什么是重金属?

 

密度在4.5克(有者当5克) /立方厘米以上的金属,包括铜、镍、铅、锌、钴、镉、铋、汞等叫重金属。反之,则为轻金属,它包括钠,钾,镁钙、铝等。

2.             重金属与化合物对人体造成怎样的毒害? 

铅毒特别对儿童与孕妇造成严重影响。这些影响包括学习障碍、肢体障碍、精神行为问题等情况。铅及其化合物的毒性主要表现在:抑制血红素合成,造成贫血;损伤脑及脊椎;使肾功能失调。血中含铅浓度过高,儿童们的能力测验低于平均值6%, 智商受损, 智力减退。

砷毒:即砒霜, 其毒性可以即刻致人予死地。对人体可能引致肾病,高血压。对肾,肝,肠胃等内脏及血细胞,骨骼,神经系统,免疫系统,生殖系统等有破坏作用。长期接触砷和镉则分别可引起皮炎,肝癌和前列腺癌。

(水银)会引发皮肤疾病、口腔炎、牙齿脱落、内出血,甚至损及肝脏与肾脏。任何形式的汞都可以转变成剧毒的“甲基汞(CH3Hg+)” ,甲基汞在人体内排泄缓慢,是蓄积性毒物。它主要侵犯大脑和小脑皮质部分,容易使人患神经紊乱性的疾病。

一旦具遗传倾向的人群接触了大量的,则会引发胃病与肠内不适,肝肾损伤以及威尔逊氏病的并发症。

化学元素中可引起肺癌。

一旦累积在人的身体中,都会造成严重的胃痛、腹痛、腰痛、头痛、继而浑身骨节疼痛,骨骼严重变形,身长缩短、肾脏衰竭、肝脏损伤等镉中毒引起的公害表现。

 3.            什么是”多环芳烃化合物”?

多数国家以氯来杀菌。它虽然能让霍乱或伤寒等传染病失踪,但它本身却会造成新的问题。除了难喝,还会与水中的化学物质结合作用,进而产生‘多环芳香烃化合物’(PAHS) 。

人类癌症病中,在已经发现的400多种致癌物质中,毒性最强的一种是3,4苯并芘(BQP)。它是多环芳烃化合物,主要存在于煤,石油,焦油和沥青中。汽车每驶一小时,排气中含0.3毫克3,4苯并芘,油煎烧焦的鱼肉、香烟都含有苯并芘 (一支香烟有0.044微克的3,4苯并芘)。

这些物质的主要来源通常是用来预防水管里面遭受侵蚀的柏油或沥青,它们被怀疑具有强烈的致癌毒性。欧盟制定每公升食水的PAHS含量不可超过200微克为安全标准。这是一个指标。

4.             杀虫剂与除草剂与氯有什么关系? 

氯主要用来制造杀虫剂与除草剂: 用于制作农药,化肥和农药杀虫剂的化学品学名如下:硝酸钾KNO3,硝酸钠NaNO3,硫酸H2SO4,氢氧化钾KOH,氯化钾KCI,铁氰化钾K3 [Fe (CN) 6] ,氰氨基钙CaCN2,偏磷酸钙 [Ca (PO3)2] ,硫氰酸钠NH4CNS,氯化氨NH4CI和氟化钠NaF,氯酸钠NaCIO3等,这些化学品有些尚能自放高热。

西班牙爱斐社的报导,全球每年有4万人因农药中毒致亡。全球农药产量,已由1970年度产量6,500万吨升到1993年度的四亿吨, 产量惊人,运用广泛。据了解农药中8,000种有剧毒,200种有致癌危险。植物农作物被种植得外表美观,其内在却已经隐含危机。人们没理由不注意农药的危害,慎防农药的污染;用滤水器洁净水清洗浸去蔬菜等的残余农药也成为迫切的需要。 

5.             泡茶为何讲求水温? 

若要泡茶,可用隆盛堂热水壶泡用。它的温度只定在85°到90°间,这个温度既不会让水煮至100°成为死水,又能沁出茶或咖啡的香味并保持了水的好。

可这不适用于豆浆。没有煮开的豆浆和没煮熟的扁豆一样是会引起中毒的。

6.            洗澡为何需用洁净水? 

“人体吸取有害化学物质的方式中,也有借皮肤吸收与嗅入体内这两种方式。事实上,远溯至1984年的二十年前,《美国公共卫生期刊》就曾刊载淋浴十五分钟,人类皮肤就会从水里吸收高达百分之六十三的特殊化学物质。”

使用被污染的水淋浴,会使体内的化学物质吸收率急剧上升。煮沸的自来水比冷水更容易将重金属溶入水里。因此,将洗澡水过滤考量的是健康关系,非为奢侈享受,这对婴幼儿等尤为需要。

工作完毕,全身沐浴;能做泡浴最好,消除疲劳,保持健康;或至少以温水浸泡足部。用天然的香精油数滴给身体吸收,有益身心健康。泡浴足浴用已去氯去菌去重金属害的新-隆盛堂洁净水伺候,大人与婴孩同, 则无后顾之忧。保健业者更应要求有这样的配套服务。

7.            饮水中为何会含硝酸盐? 

饮水中含硝酸盐,这是因为硝酸盐肥料所产生的。

硝酸盐会在我们体内与其他化学物质结合作用而形成亚硝酸盐,并在消化道中产生亚硝胺这类致癌物质。

8.            自来水煮沸有问题吗? 

自来水自煮沸也会产生三氯甲烷。

9.            自来水煮米有问题吗? 

煮饭不宜用含有氯的自来水煮,它会使米中的维生素B1大量损失。

10.        为何说“血液酸浊会致病” 

日本医学博士系川先生一生中苦心研究医学的总结论:血液酸浊而易致病,酸性体质容易患慢性病。

酸能 “ 蚀骨腐肉 “,人体肌肤沾到硫酸或盐酸马上引起糜烂。

根据东京大学医学部的研究,测定六百名癌患唾液的酸碱性:结果90%是酸性,其中的85%,其PH值是在5.8以下的强酸性体液。

酸性对人体有害。当酸值为6时,螃蟹死亡; 酸值4/3时鲑鱼/鱼类难以生存。

11.        以逆渗透法开发的过滤水机有何利弊?

:1) 应用于工业上,如机器,锅炉的洗涤,商业上冷气系统冷却塔的需要, 及某些特定行业如救火局、水器等的运用,逆渗透水提供了回流利用,有助环保;

2) 逆渗透水开发比利用海水淡化节省成本, 节约成本;

3) 逆渗透水适合应用于护肤,伤口愈合及其他消毒用途。

:  1) 逆渗透水缺乏人体所需的矿物质与微量元素,不利健康:若又重新加入矿物质与微量元素,是不科学的,优水中所具有的微量元素和矿物质,是蔬菜水果无可替代的。

某些矿物质含量超标,还会引致中毒。如矿物质碘, 是人体所需,  但它若含量0.05mg/l以上, 则会造成碘中毒 。人体内过量的铁可以沉积在许多器官的细胞中。以肝,肾上腺、甲状腺、胰和胃等处为多。结果可诱发人体罹患以肝硬化、糖尿病和皮肤色素沉着为主的综合病症。因此,盲目超量吸收矿物质对身体不仅无益,而是有害。

2)  小型逆渗透性水机需要高水压,并得将其废水放弃,浪费水源。

3)  逆渗透水PH值偏酸性,不合人体微碱性体质,不合人们直饮。长期饮用还会增加钙的流失,危害健康, 不利儿童,孕妇, 病人与老年人。

12.        饮用偏酸性纯水有何害处?

不少人认为水越纯越好。事实上,纯净水呈弱酸性,长期饮用会带走人体内的微量元素,增加钙的流失, 从而降低人体免疫力,容易产生疾病。不宜长期饮用。

含咖啡因的碳酸性饮料,用之人多,也不应当做饮用水。由于饮料中含有糖和蛋白质,又添加了不少香精和色素,不但起不到给身体“补水”的作用,还会降低食欲,影响消化, 并导致热量过剩,刺激血脂上升,增加心血管负担。

新加坡桶装水多用于办公室,其设计常采用逆渗透技术加工,水质多为微酸性水。不只没有人体必需的矿物质和微量元素,尚给身体带来酸性体质,不利健康。它启用后会进空气,存放时间过久,会滋生细菌。

通常,含有少量钙(Ca2+)和镁(Mg2+)的软水,和含有少量矿物质和微量元素的水在溶解性总固体(TDS)的检测上也属低值;纯水则为零。因此,对水不能只求低TDS和低PH值。

13.    有什么水毒害例证?

例证一:

日本熊本县的水祦镇的住民曾经患过‘怪病’, 口齿不清,步履不稳,面部痴呆,而后耳聋眼瞎,全身麻木,神经失常……原来其地有家工厂排出了“甲基汞”的废水污染了农田,环境。

任何形式的汞都可以转变成剧毒的“甲基汞(CH3Hg+)” ,甲基汞在人体内排泄缓慢,是蓄积性毒物。它主要侵犯大脑和小脑皮质部分,容易使人患神经紊乱性的疾病。

例证二:

化学元素中铬可引起肺癌;

某些使用镀锌材质水管的家庭饮用水中也发现镉的踪迹。与铅相同,镉一旦累积在人的身体中,都会造成严重的胃痛、腹痛、腰痛、头痛、继而浑身骨节疼痛,骨骼严重变形,身长缩短、肾脏衰竭、肝脏损伤等镉中毒引起的公害表现。

例证三:

台湾的嘉义、台南沿海地区的烏脚病是由水质中的重金属含量偏高,使人体内囤积了大量的重金属元素,这些重金属元素因带有重量,因此较易囤积于脚掌,亦逐渐延伸至小腿,这些重金属元素将破坏人体细胞的生存环境,而导致细胞大量死亡、溃烂。

例证四:

“氟化物的毒性非常强烈,不但会造成许多动植物的遗传基因损害,什至还是人类新生儿缺陷 (特别是唐氏症) 及过敏反应的原因。

最近,更有不断增加的证据显示,氟化物会妨碍人体当中有关钙、鎂、錳,以及维生素C的新陈代谢。

例证五:

24/9/2006 新加坡早报星期天 ‘天下’ 栏报导:

☆  今日全世界已有1/3的人在不一程度上缺乏生活用水;

☆  有多达11亿人(世界人口的1/6)无法获得安全的饮用水

☆  全球每年有300多万人死于腹泻和痢疾,其中160万人(90% 是五岁以下儿童)若能获得净水和卫生设施,就不会死于这类传染病。

例证六:

2006年9月18日, 新加坡联合早报报导来自美国华盛顿的新闻, 因为吃了被大肠杆菌 (E .Coli) 污染的菠菜,共有120人发病,16人出现肾衰竭。

14.    公司有什么专业认证?

产品经新加坡当局检测合格。

1:新加坡卫生科学局检验使用 1320优质健康水机过滤自来水的化验报告:

检验

结果

( Pb ), mg/L 

未检测出(<0.005)

( As), mg/L  

未检测出(<0.005)

(Hg ), mg/L   未检测出(<0.001)
(Cu ), mg/L   未检测出(<0.04)  
总余氯,  mg/L         未检测出(<0.1)   

PH 酸碱值      

7.2     

认证2:另一项新加坡中央医院的检验如下,检测证明了在还没有换过滤芯的情况下, 一台用了6个月的1320滤水系统仍能保持优良的水质, 甚至超越当局所定的标准。

检验项目

检验结果

世界卫生组织(WHO) (2004)或

新加坡公用事业局(PUB)水质 标准

混浊度 (in NTU)

0.15

<5 (PUB)

PH 酸碱值

7.6

7.0- 9.0 (PUB)

余氯(Cl2, 总)

<0.2

<2 (PUB)

溶解性总固体

75.9

1000 max (WHO)

总硬度 (以CaCO3碳酸钙计)

44.9

100 max (PUB)

铁(Fe)

<0.01

<0.04 (PUB)

认证3:下表由大学医学院微生物教授进行以32,700毫升水对具有高浓度大肠杆菌(17,500 CFU/100ml) 的检测,其通过新盛洁净水过滤系统之后未检测出细菌。

时间 

(分钟)

滤水器出口收集的水量

 ( ml )

水库中的大肠杆菌的浓度

 (CFU/100ml)

滤水器出口收集的水中大肠杆菌的浓度  (CFU/100ml)

0

0

17,500

未检测出

5

5,500

540

未检测出

10

11,000

未检测出

未检测出

20

21,900

未检测出

未检测出

30

32,700

未检测出

未检测出